As citizens of India, the largest democracy on this earth, we relish the claim that we are part of a civilisation based on principles of Satyameva Jayate (truth alone triumphs) and ahimsa (non-violence). Sadly, this may not hold true for many of us, specially, minorities and Dalits. Despite the Indian Constitution assuring no discrimination on the basis of religion and Caste, there are two kinds of system of justice; one for the majority community and high Castes and the other for minority communities and Dalits.
Image: Ram Rahman
Two Kinds of Justice
Whenever the country witnesses the large-scale violence against minorities and Dalits, the search for perpetrators continues endlessly and criminals rarely punished. Major incidents of violence against minorities like Nellie massacre (1983), Sikh massacre (1984), Hashimpura custodial massacre of Muslim youth (1987), pre/post-Ayodhya mosque demolition violence against Muslims (1990-92), and Kandhmal cleansing of Christians (2008) are testimony to this reality. Gujarat carnage (2002) broke this pattern –to some extent–due to the relentless pursuit of justice by Survivors and Rights Groups.
The status of anti-Dalit violence is no different. The major incidents of persecution and massacre of Dalits; 1968 Kilvenmani massacre, 1997 Melavalavu massacre, 2013 Marakkanam anti-Dalit violence, 2012 Dharmapuri anti-Dalit violence (all in Tamil Nadu), 1985 Karamchedu massacre, 1991 Tsundur massacre (all in AP), 1996 Bathani Tola Massacre, 1997 Laxmanpur Bathe massacre (all in Bihar), 1997 Ramabai killings, Mumbai, 2006 Khairlanji massacre, 2014 Javkheda Hatyakand, (all in Maharashtra), 2000 Caste persecution in (Karnataka), 5 Dalits beaten/burnt to death for skinning a dead cow 2006, 2011 killings of Dalits in Mirchpur (all in Haryana), 2015 anti-Dalit violence in Dangawas (Rajasthan) are some of the thousands of incidents of the Dalit persecution. In almost all these cases the perpetrators are yet to be identified. Even if identified the prosecution rate never exceeded 20%.
On the other hand, if ‘perpetrators’ of any kind of violence are from among the Dalit or the minority, they are most efficiently put on trial by constituting special investigation teams and punished by fast track courts. In order to meet the end of justice and national security they are even hanged, certainly jailed. But when the victims are Dalits or minorities no such urgency to mete out punishment is shown. In such cases Indian State is fond of playing the commission-upon-commission game. Commissions after commissions are then constituted to ensure that such heinous crimes disappear from the public memory. The horrendous massacre of Sikhs in different parts of India is a living testimony to this discriminatory play out of the Indian criminal justice system
Farcical Justice to Sikh Victims of 1984
After giving a free run to the killer gangs the then government appointed one man Marwah Commission to find out the perpetrators of the 1984 ‘riots’. This Commission was asked to disband itself within a short period of its existence and a sitting Supreme Court Judge Ranganath Mishra was asked to conduct inquiry into 1984 ‘riots’. He submitted his report in 1987. Shockingly, this fact finding (or fact-hiding) commission observed that “the riots which had a spontaneous origin later attained a channelised method at the hands of gangsters”. The apostle of justice, and champion of spontaneity was not unable to find out from where these gangsters came! According to Jarnail Singh author of the book I Accuse: The Anti-Sikh Violence of 1984, it was for this ‘service’ to the State that he was awarded a berth in Rajya Sabha.
Over the next two decades, not less than nine commissions of inquiry were instituted. This patten has become a convenient ruse, often to ensure that the new commissionor directs more compensation to the families of the victims in order to deflect the mounting anger. Highlighting the anti-minority bias of such commissions,H. S. Phoolka, a renowned lawyer, has commented that instead of getting convicted many of the political perpetrators get promotions within their political outfits.
The latest development in the Sikh massacre of 1984 is that the Supreme Court of India has, on August 16, 2017 ordered the constitution of a panel comprising two of its former judges to examine the justification in closing down 241 anti-Sikh riot cases. This ‘probe’ will be conducted by a Special Investigation team (SIT) and a report submitted over the next 3 months. Will this investigation also be consigned to the dustbin of history? We hope not. But one thing is sure that even after 33 years of the gruesome massacre of Sikhs, the Indian Republic is yet to locate the killers.
Betrayal by All
The RSS claims to have always stood for Hindu-Sikh unity. It occasionally expresses its gratitude to Sikhism for saving Hinduism from ‘Muslim’ aggression. It may not be irrelevant to note here that RSS does not treat Sikhism as an independent religion which discarded Casteism and Brahmanical hegemony but insists that it is part of Hinduism. The RSS/BJP leaders have blamed Congress for anti-Sikh violence
Modi while addressing a public rally during last parliamentary elections at Jhansi, UP (October 25, 2013) asked Congress leaders to explain who “killed thousands of Sikhs in 1984” and “has anyone been convicted for the Sikh genocide so far”. Modi, even during the Punjab state elections (2017) and 2014 general elections kept on referring to ‘qatl-e-aam’ or genocide of Sikhs.
Modi after becoming PM in a message (October 31, 2014) said that anti-Sikh riots in the aftermath of Indira Gandhi’s assassination were like a “dagger that pierced through India’s chest…Our own people were murdered, the attack was not on a particular community but on the entire nation.” Hindutva icon, RSS whole-timer and PM Modi lamented the fact that culprits were yet to be booked and tried for this massacre. However, Modi did not tell the nation what NDA governments (NDA I between 1998-2004) did to persecute the culprits. Modi also forgot to share the fact that, according to the autobiography of
LK Advani (page 430), it was his Party (the BJP) that pushed Indira Gandhi to go in for army action inside the Golden temple (Operation Blue Star) which killed a large number of Sikh pilgrims.
Renowned journalist Manoj Mitta, author of bookWhen a Tree Shook Delhi: The 1984 Carnage and Its Aftermath comments that “Despite the BJP rule, there has hardly been any will to enforce accountability for the massacres that took place under the Congress. It’s as if there is a tacit deal between the sponsors of 1984 and 2002″.
This is not what outsiders or critics of the RSS say. The perusal of the contemporary RSS documents show that major focus was on condemning the Sikh extremism, eulogizing Indira Gandhi and welcoming the crowning of Rajiv Gandhi as new prime minister.
RSS Ideologue Nana Deshmukh De-Humanised the Sikh Massacre
The most important proof of such a dehumanized attitude towards the massacre of Sikhs is a document circulated byNana Deshmukh, a prominent whole timer and ideologue of the RSS [now deceased].
This document titled as ‘MOMENTS OF SOUL SEARCHING’was circulated by Deshmukh on November 8, 1984, may help in unmasking the whole lot of criminals involved in the massacre of innocent Sikhs who had nothing to do with the killing of Indira Gandhi. This document may also throw light on where the cadres came from, who meticulously organized the killing of Sikhs. Nana Deshmukh in this document is seen outlining the justification of the massacre of the Sikh community in 1984.
This document also reveals degenerate and fascist attitude of the RSS towards all the minorities of India. The RSS has been arguing that they are against Muslims and Christians because they are the followers of ‘foreign faiths’. Here we find them justifying the butchering of Sikhs who according to their own categorisation happened to be the followers of an indigenous religion. In this document we will hear from the horse’s mouth that the RSS –like the then Congress leadership– believed that the massacre of the innocent Sikhs was unavoidable.
This document was published in the Hindi Weekly Pratipaksh edited by George Fernandes who later became Defence Minister of India in the NDA regime, in its edition of November 25, 1984 titled ‘Indira Congress-RSS collusion’ with the following editorial comment:
“The author of the following document is known as an ideologue and policy formulator of the RSS. After the killing of Prime Minister (Indira Gandhi) he distributed this document among prominent politicians. It has a historical significance that is why we have decided to publish it, violating policy of our Weekly. This document highlights the new affinities developing between the Indira Congress and the RSS. We produce here the Hindi translation of the document.”
Deshmukh in his document‘MOMENTS OF SOUL SEARCHING’is seen outlining the justification of the massacre of the Sikh community in 1984. His defence of the carnage can be summed up as in the following:
1. The massacre of Sikhs was not the handiwork of any group or anti-social elements but the result of a genuine feeling of anger.
2. Deshmukh did not distinguish the action of the two security personnel of Indira Gandhi, who happened to be Sikhs, from that of the whole Sikh community. According to his document the killers of Indira Gandhi were working under some kind of mandate of their community.
3. Sikhs themselves invited these attacks, thus advancing the Congress theory of justifying the massacre of the Sikhs.
4. He glorified ‘Operation Blue Star’ and described any opposition to it as anti-national. When Sikhs were being killed in thousands he was warning the country of Sikh extremism, thus offering ideological defense of those killings.
5. Sikh community as a whole was responsible for violence in Punjab.
6. Sikhs should have done nothing in self-defence but showed patience and tolerance against the killer mobs.
7. It was Sikh intellectuals and not killer mobs which were responsible for the massacre. They had turned Sikhs into a militant community, cutting them off from their Hindu roots, thus inviting attacks from the nationalist Indians. Moreover, he treated all Sikhs as part of the same gang and described attacks on them as a reaction of the nationalist Hindus.
8. He described Indira Gandhi as the only leader who could keep the country united and assassination of such a great leader such killings could not be avoided.
9. Rajiv Gandhi who succeeded Mrs. Gandhi as the PM and justified the nation-wide killings of Sikhs by saying, “When a huge tree falls there are always tremors felt”, was lauded and blessed by Nana Deshmukh at the end of the document.
10. Shockingly, the massacre of Sikhs was equated with the attacks on the RSS cadres after the killing of Gandhiji and we find Deshmukh advising Sikhs to suffer silently. Everybody knows that the killing of Gandhiji was inspired by the RSS and the Hindutva Ideology whereas the common innocent Sikhs had nothing to do with the murder of Indira Gandhi.
11. There was not a single sentence in the Deshmukh document demanding, from the then Congress Government at the Centre or the then home minister Narsimha Rao (a Congress leader dear to RSS) remedial measures for controlling the violence against the minority community. Mind you, that Deshmukh circulated this document on November 8, 1984, and from October 31 to this date Sikhs were left alone to face the killing gangs. In fact November 5-10 was the period when the maximum killings of Sikhs took place. Deshmukh was just not bothered about all this.
12. It is generally believed that the Congress cadres were behind this genocide. This may be true but there were other forces too which actively participated in this massacre and whose role has never been investigated. This could be one of the reasons that actual perpetrators remain unknown. Those who witnessed the genocide were stunned by the swiftness and military precision of the killer/marauding gangs (later on witnessed during the Babri mosque demolition, burning alive of Dr. Graham Steins with his two sons, 2002 pogrom of the Muslims in Gujarat and cleansing of Christians in parts of Orissa) which went on a burning spree of the innocent Sikhs. This, surely, was beyond the capacity of the thugs led by many Congress leaders.
The Deshmukh document was not penned in isolation. It represented the real RSS attitude towards Sikh genocide of 1984. It may be relevant to know here that the RSS cadres did not come forward in defence of the Sikhs. The RSS is very fond of circulating publicity material, especially photographs of its khaki shorts-clad cadres doing social work. For the 1984 violence they have none. In fact, Deshmukh’s article also made no mention of the RSS cadres going to the rescue of Sikhs under siege. This shows the real intentions of the RSS during the genocide.
The RSS English organ, Organizer in its double issue dated November 11 & 18, 1984 carried an editorial titled ‘Stunning Loss’ which praised Indira Gandhi in the following words: “It will always be difficult.to believe that the Indira Gandhi is no more. One had got so used to hearing her myriad voices for so long, that everything looks so blank without her. The violent manner of her death is the most shocking horror story, giving the nation the creeps…It is a case of treacherous fanatics stigmatizing the whole nation by butchering a remarkable specimen of Indian womanhood…She literally served India to the last drop of her blood according to her own lights.” The same editorial ended with the words supporting newly installed PM, Rajiv Gandhi who “deserves sympathy and consideration”.
Organizer also carried statement of RSS Supremo, Bala Deoras titled ‘Balasaheb condemns assassination, Delhi carnage’ in a single column. He mourned and condemned the carnage but not even once referred to the fact that Sikhs were under attack. For him it was “infighting in the Hindu Samaj”. He also overlooked the fact that it was not only Delhi where Sikhs were butchered/burnt but in many other parts of India. According to this statement “swayamsevaks have been instructed to form or help in forming Mohalla Suraksha Samitis” for restoring peace and rehabilitation of the sufferers. However, there are no documents available in the contemporary RSS archives to show how these Samitis functioned. It is a fact that RSS which is fond of displaying photographs of its cadres doing social work did not publish any visual of the activity of these Samitis.
In the same statement Deoras reacting to the assassination of Indira Gandhi stated, “It is shocking beyond words to express the feelings at the murder of PM Mrs. Indira Gandhi by some fanatic elements. She had been carrying on almost the entire burden of the country since 1966. She was loved and respected not only in this country but all over the world. Her passing away at this critical juncture will create a void in India and also in the world.”
According to the above mentioned Organizer “RSS Sarkyavah, Rajender Singh issued instructions to all the branches in the country to hold a special meetingin Shakha condemning the dastardly murder of the PM and paying homage to the departed soul. He also issued instructions to cancel all public functions to be held by RSS during the period of mourning”. Of course, RSS archives do not contain any instructions from RSS top brass ordering to mourn the Sikh martyrs.
The RSS continues to downplay the 1984 Sikh massacre. This is also clear from the perusal of charter of demands submitted to the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) in last July. The senior RSS ideologue, Dina Nath Batra on behalf of RSS-affiliated Shiksha Sanskriti Utthan Nyas submitted five pages containing list of items to be removed from school text-books. Batra demanded that any reference to violence against minorities in the text-books should be removed which included references to a simple apology tendered by the former PM Manmohan Singh over 1984 violence.
It is to be noted that in an apology in Parliament on August 12, 2005, Manmohan Singh, the then PM of India stated: “I have no hesitation in apologizing to the Sikh community. I apologize not only to the Sikh community, but to the whole Indian nation because what took place in 1984 is the negation of the concept of nationhood enshrined in our Constitution.” The objection is to the following text in the class XII political science book. “During his parliament speech in 2005, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh expressed regret over the bloodshed and sought an apology from the country for anti-Sikh violence.”
And so the search for finding the perpetrators of Sikh massacre of 1984 continues endlessly. The present RSS/BJP rulers who even claim Sikhs to be co-religionists prove no different from Congress.
Link to read the full text of Nana Deshmukh’s document: https://www.academia.edu/4890979/RSS_IDEOLOGUE_NANA_DESHMUKH_JUSTIFIED_MASSACRE_OF_SIKHS_IN_1984_From_RSS_archives_
The views expressed here are the author’s personal views, and do not necessarily represent the views of Sabrangindia.