Skip to main content
Sabrang
Sabrang
Freedom Politics

To Improve Quality Of School Education, India Must Spend More On Training Teachers

Protiva Kundu 02 Feb 2019
New Delhi: With nearly one in six elementary school teachers not professionally trained, India must improve its spending on teacher training--just 2% of the 2018-19 budget allocated for Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan (‘holistic education programme’) was spent on teachers’ training institutes.


The projected budget allocation for the programme for 2019-20 is estimated to be Rs 34,489 crore, an increase of 10.5% from the 2018-19 budget estimate, according to a medium-term expenditure projection statement presented to parliament in August 2018.

Launched in 2018 by combining Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (‘education for all’), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (‘national middle education mission’) and teachers’ education programmes, Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan aims to provide support for both pre-service and in-service teacher training.

Teacher training is imperative for improving learning outcomes in Indian classrooms, as acknowledged by the Three Years Action Agenda of the government think-tank NITI Aayog, as well as in the 2018 budget speech that emphasised on the need for professionally qualified teachers for school education reform.

Only half of 10- to 11-year-olds in India can read a grade II level text (appropriate for seven- to eight-year-olds), as IndiaSpend reported on January 25, 2019. In rural India, almost half of grade V students cannot read a grade II text and more than 70% them cannot carry out simple division.

Shortage of professionally qualified teachers 
A common feature across the Indian education system is shortage of qualified teachers. Section 23 of the Right to Education Act of 2009 (RTE Act) mandates that all government school teachers should possess minimum qualifications laid down by the National Council of Teacher Education.

Under guidelines released in November 2010, those not qualified were given time until March 31, 2015, to complete their training.
Yet, in 2015-16, of 6.6 million teachers employed at the elementary level, 1.1 million were untrained. Of these, 512,000 were in government and aided schools and 598,000 in private schools.

At the secondary school level, of 2 million teachers, around 14% were not professionally qualified, according to data from the education ministry.

Large proportions of untrained teachers--both at the elementary and the secondary level--exist in West Bengal (40.8%), Bihar (36.6%), Jharkhand (16.5%), Uttar Pradesh (13.2%) and Chhattisgarh (10.5%).

Pre-service teacher training--a neglected component
Teacher training is a continuous process, with pre-service and in-service training being its inseparable components. In March 2017, the central government amended the RTE Act by extending the timeline for teacher training from 2015 to 2019.

The expenditure on strengthening teacher training institutes has increased from Rs 326 crore to Rs 550 crore in the last 10 years. In 2016-17, the central government brought the teacher training programme under the umbrella of National Education Mission (NEM).
Yet, the share of teachers’ education budget in school budget has consistently declined from 1.3% in 2009-10 to 1.1% in 2018-19 (budget estimates), showing that teachers’ training has been accorded low priority.


Source: Union Budget; *Revised estimate, **Budget estimate

The situation is similar in states. Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar and West Bengal, states with large numbers of professionally unqualified teachers, are not even spending 1% of their school education budgets on teachers’ training, according to this 2018 study by the Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability.

After the 14th Finance Commission recommendations, some states such as Bihar and Chhattisgarh increased the share of spending on teachers’ training, yet it remained at 0.001% in Uttar Pradesh and 1.3% in Bihar.

Both the central and state governments have failed to spend enough to create institutional capacity for teacher training, which is resource-intensive. As a result, the District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET), the nodal agencies for teacher training and curriculum development, have failed to fulfil their roles--government data in 2018 showed that more than 35% academic posts in DIETs were vacant.
DIETs’ performance is reflected in the results of the Teachers Eligibility Test (TET) for teacher recruitment started in 2011 under the RTE Act. CTET results for 2018 showed that only 17% of 1.7 million candidates qualified as primary school teachers and 15% candidates as middle school teachers.

The private sector has stepped in to meet the growing need for diplomas and undergraduate degrees in elementary education, to the extent that 90% of teacher training institutes in the country today are in the private sector.  

Focus remains on in-service training
Over time, the government has addressed the issue of untrained teachers mostly through in-service teacher training under SSA and RMSA. These centrally-sponsored schemes only provide the running cost for refresher courses, which amounts to as little as Rs 100 per teacher per day under SSA and Rs 300 under RMSA.

The SSA programme itself is severely under-funded, as the education ministry has allocated a small proportion of its committed funds to state governments. For instance, in 2016-17, Rs 46,702 crore were approved but only Rs 22,500 crore actually allocated as the central government's share of SSA, less than 50% of the approved outlay. The central government’s allocation for the scheme depends, to a large extent, on its collections of education cess. In the last five years, more than 60% of the SSA budget has been financed through this cess.  

Financing Of Elementary Education Through Education Cess, 2014-15 To 2018-19


Source:  Of Hits and Misses, an analysis of Union budget 2018-19, CBGA

The financing of education being dependent on variable collections of cess every year makes the allocation for SSA, and thereby, teacher training uncertain.

(Provita Kundu works with Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability. She can be reached at Protiva@cbgaindia.org)

Courtesy: India Spend
 

To Improve Quality Of School Education, India Must Spend More On Training Teachers

New Delhi: With nearly one in six elementary school teachers not professionally trained, India must improve its spending on teacher training--just 2% of the 2018-19 budget allocated for Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan (‘holistic education programme’) was spent on teachers’ training institutes.


The projected budget allocation for the programme for 2019-20 is estimated to be Rs 34,489 crore, an increase of 10.5% from the 2018-19 budget estimate, according to a medium-term expenditure projection statement presented to parliament in August 2018.

Launched in 2018 by combining Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (‘education for all’), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (‘national middle education mission’) and teachers’ education programmes, Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan aims to provide support for both pre-service and in-service teacher training.

Teacher training is imperative for improving learning outcomes in Indian classrooms, as acknowledged by the Three Years Action Agenda of the government think-tank NITI Aayog, as well as in the 2018 budget speech that emphasised on the need for professionally qualified teachers for school education reform.

Only half of 10- to 11-year-olds in India can read a grade II level text (appropriate for seven- to eight-year-olds), as IndiaSpend reported on January 25, 2019. In rural India, almost half of grade V students cannot read a grade II text and more than 70% them cannot carry out simple division.

Shortage of professionally qualified teachers 
A common feature across the Indian education system is shortage of qualified teachers. Section 23 of the Right to Education Act of 2009 (RTE Act) mandates that all government school teachers should possess minimum qualifications laid down by the National Council of Teacher Education.

Under guidelines released in November 2010, those not qualified were given time until March 31, 2015, to complete their training.
Yet, in 2015-16, of 6.6 million teachers employed at the elementary level, 1.1 million were untrained. Of these, 512,000 were in government and aided schools and 598,000 in private schools.

At the secondary school level, of 2 million teachers, around 14% were not professionally qualified, according to data from the education ministry.

Large proportions of untrained teachers--both at the elementary and the secondary level--exist in West Bengal (40.8%), Bihar (36.6%), Jharkhand (16.5%), Uttar Pradesh (13.2%) and Chhattisgarh (10.5%).

Pre-service teacher training--a neglected component
Teacher training is a continuous process, with pre-service and in-service training being its inseparable components. In March 2017, the central government amended the RTE Act by extending the timeline for teacher training from 2015 to 2019.

The expenditure on strengthening teacher training institutes has increased from Rs 326 crore to Rs 550 crore in the last 10 years. In 2016-17, the central government brought the teacher training programme under the umbrella of National Education Mission (NEM).
Yet, the share of teachers’ education budget in school budget has consistently declined from 1.3% in 2009-10 to 1.1% in 2018-19 (budget estimates), showing that teachers’ training has been accorded low priority.


Source: Union Budget; *Revised estimate, **Budget estimate

The situation is similar in states. Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar and West Bengal, states with large numbers of professionally unqualified teachers, are not even spending 1% of their school education budgets on teachers’ training, according to this 2018 study by the Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability.

After the 14th Finance Commission recommendations, some states such as Bihar and Chhattisgarh increased the share of spending on teachers’ training, yet it remained at 0.001% in Uttar Pradesh and 1.3% in Bihar.

Both the central and state governments have failed to spend enough to create institutional capacity for teacher training, which is resource-intensive. As a result, the District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET), the nodal agencies for teacher training and curriculum development, have failed to fulfil their roles--government data in 2018 showed that more than 35% academic posts in DIETs were vacant.
DIETs’ performance is reflected in the results of the Teachers Eligibility Test (TET) for teacher recruitment started in 2011 under the RTE Act. CTET results for 2018 showed that only 17% of 1.7 million candidates qualified as primary school teachers and 15% candidates as middle school teachers.

The private sector has stepped in to meet the growing need for diplomas and undergraduate degrees in elementary education, to the extent that 90% of teacher training institutes in the country today are in the private sector.  

Focus remains on in-service training
Over time, the government has addressed the issue of untrained teachers mostly through in-service teacher training under SSA and RMSA. These centrally-sponsored schemes only provide the running cost for refresher courses, which amounts to as little as Rs 100 per teacher per day under SSA and Rs 300 under RMSA.

The SSA programme itself is severely under-funded, as the education ministry has allocated a small proportion of its committed funds to state governments. For instance, in 2016-17, Rs 46,702 crore were approved but only Rs 22,500 crore actually allocated as the central government's share of SSA, less than 50% of the approved outlay. The central government’s allocation for the scheme depends, to a large extent, on its collections of education cess. In the last five years, more than 60% of the SSA budget has been financed through this cess.  

Financing Of Elementary Education Through Education Cess, 2014-15 To 2018-19


Source:  Of Hits and Misses, an analysis of Union budget 2018-19, CBGA

The financing of education being dependent on variable collections of cess every year makes the allocation for SSA, and thereby, teacher training uncertain.

(Provita Kundu works with Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability. She can be reached at Protiva@cbgaindia.org)

Courtesy: India Spend
 

Related Articles

Sunday

03

Jan

Pan-India

Saturday

05

Dec

05 pm onwards

Rise in Rage!

North Gate, JNU campus

Thursday

26

Nov

10 am onwards

Delhi Chalo

Pan India

Theme

Stop Hate

Hate and Harmony in 2021

A recap of all that transpired across India in terms of hate speech and even outright hate crimes, as well as the persecution of those who dared to speak up against hate. This disturbing harvest of hate should now push us to do more to forge harmony.
Taliban 2021

Taliban in Afghanistan: A look back

Communalism Combat had taken a deep dive into the lives of people of Afghanistan under the Taliban regime. Here we reproduce some of our archives documenting the plight of hapless Afghanis, especially women, who suffered the most under the hardline regime.
2020

Milestones 2020

In the year devastated by the Covid 19 Pandemic, India witnessed apathy against some of its most marginalised people and vilification of dissenters by powerful state and non state actors. As 2020 draws to a close, and hundreds of thousands of Indian farmers continue their protest in the bitter North Indian cold. Read how Indians resisted all attempts to snatch away fundamental and constitutional freedoms.
Migrant Diaries

Migrant Diaries

The 2020 COVID pandemic brought to fore the dismal lives that our migrant workers lead. Read these heartbreaking stories of how they lived before the pandemic, how the lockdown changed their lives and what they’re doing now.

Campaigns

Sunday

03

Jan

Pan-India

Saturday

05

Dec

05 pm onwards

Rise in Rage!

North Gate, JNU campus

Thursday

26

Nov

10 am onwards

Delhi Chalo

Pan India

Videos

Communalism

Hate, Arms, Shrine Takeovers: Is Hindutva extremism at its peak in Karnataka?

WATCH: In this SabrangIndia Exclusive show called 'Column 9', journalist & activist Shivasundar talks about the journey of Hindutva Extremism, from fringe groups to the center, in Karnataka, which is arguably empowered and emboldened by the legislative and judiciary, simultaneously.

Communalism

Hate, Arms, Shrine Takeovers: Is Hindutva extremism at its peak in Karnataka?

WATCH: In this SabrangIndia Exclusive show called 'Column 9', journalist & activist Shivasundar talks about the journey of Hindutva Extremism, from fringe groups to the center, in Karnataka, which is arguably empowered and emboldened by the legislative and judiciary, simultaneously.

IN FACT

Analysis

Stop Hate

Hate and Harmony in 2021

A recap of all that transpired across India in terms of hate speech and even outright hate crimes, as well as the persecution of those who dared to speak up against hate. This disturbing harvest of hate should now push us to do more to forge harmony.
Taliban 2021

Taliban in Afghanistan: A look back

Communalism Combat had taken a deep dive into the lives of people of Afghanistan under the Taliban regime. Here we reproduce some of our archives documenting the plight of hapless Afghanis, especially women, who suffered the most under the hardline regime.
2020

Milestones 2020

In the year devastated by the Covid 19 Pandemic, India witnessed apathy against some of its most marginalised people and vilification of dissenters by powerful state and non state actors. As 2020 draws to a close, and hundreds of thousands of Indian farmers continue their protest in the bitter North Indian cold. Read how Indians resisted all attempts to snatch away fundamental and constitutional freedoms.
Migrant Diaries

Migrant Diaries

The 2020 COVID pandemic brought to fore the dismal lives that our migrant workers lead. Read these heartbreaking stories of how they lived before the pandemic, how the lockdown changed their lives and what they’re doing now.

Archives