New UGC Rules for Qualification of Professors Condemned

A June 13 UGC Regulation makes Ph.D. a Mandatory Qualification for the post of Assistant Professor


“Increasing qualifications will not only delay entry into the profession, but also deny chance to bright candidates, who, because of socio-economic conditions, fail to do Ph.D.”
A new set of UGC regulations released by HRD Minister Prakash Javadekar on June 13, mandate that a Ph.D degree will be necessary for both, direct recruitment as an assistant professor and promotion to assistant professor in the universities. These regulations will come into effect from July 1, 2021, once notified. 

Although a master’s degree with NET qualification or Ph.D. will continue to be the minimum eligibility requirement for direct recruitment of an assistant professor in colleges, a Ph.D degree will be mandatory for promotion to the post of assistant professor (selection grade). It further mentions that the incentives to the teachers provided in earlier Regulations of 2010 and subsequent amendments have been retained. These include incentives for M.Phil/Ph.D.

While this condition has been added, in the new system, the crucial API (Academic Performance Indicator)-based PBAS (Performance Based Appraisal System) has been removed. Instead, a new simplified teacher evaluation grading system has been introduced and ‘research score’ element has been added to encourage universities to improve research output. The promotion criteria under CAS (Career Advancement Scheme) for university teachers has been made more research-oriented, while in the case of college teachers, it is more focused on teaching. According to the press release, “For the first time provision for promotion in Colleges will be up to Professor level. […] For the first time, weightages are assigned for CAS in respect of MOOCs and E-Content in Universities and Colleges.”

In February this year, the UGC (University Grants Commission) had announced Draft Regulations for the same. Both the major organisations representing teachers, that is the Delhi University Teachers’ Association (DUTA),  and also other Teachers’ Associations (like FEDCUTA and PUTA), have criticised the moves and both the sets of regulations (February and June 2018). DUTA, in its ‘Preliminary responses to the Draft UGC Regulations 2018’ has stated:

 “The effort to make PhD a mandatory qualification for recruitment of Assistant Professors is a cause for apprehension. It is a matter of concern that conditions are created in the Regulations by which acquiring a PhD no longer benefits the teacher either at the entry-level or in service. Taking away the incentives of PhD and making it a mandatory requirement for direct recruitment would amount to delaying the entry of teachers to the profession by a few years till the acquisition of higher qualification. […] It is ironical that on the one hand, the Draft Regulations make PhD a necessary pre-condition for Career Advancement Scheme to senior positions like Associate Professor and Professor, the same Regulations make it virtually impossible for teachers to acquire PhD while in service. Hence, there must not be any change in the qualification of Assistant Professor for purpose of direct recruitment at colleges and in University Departments.”

The document further mentions that, “The long-standing demand of teachers seeking the rollback of the pernicious system of API/PBAS for promotion of teachers has been met in the Draft Regulations 2018. However, a higher qualification (PhD in this case) is being mandated for promotion to Associate Professors in colleges: a change from the earlier CAS 2010.”

Abha Dev Habib, a professor in Delhi University, speaking to the media, said, “Qualification at university and college level should remain same and should not be enhanced to require Ph.D. instead of post-graduation and NET. The disparity will unnecessarily create hierarchy between universities and colleges. Increasing qualifications will not only delay entry into the profession, but also deny chance to bright candidates, who, because of socio-economic conditions, fail to do Ph.D. – as it requires many more years of study. Facility like study leave to academicians help in earning higher degrees while doing a job. Also, as UGC Regulations are mandatory for universities and colleges across the country, raising the qualifications may create hurdles for many universities in hiring teachers. Universities and selection committees should have the responsibility and freedom of applying suitable screening criteria for shortlisting candidates on the basis of applications received.”

Other key clauses in the new UGC regulations are:

  • A special provision has been made for recruitment of assistant professors in universities and colleges for Ph.D degree holders from a university/institution in the top 500 Global rankings.
  • Up to 10 per cent of the existing sanctioned strength of professors in universities shall be appointed as senior professors in the universities. Senior professors in universities will be appointed through direct recruitment and through promotion under CAS.
  • Universities will accord permission and provide need based facilities to colleges teachers to supervise Ph.D/M.Phil scholars.

Over the past four years and more, there has been widespread criticism of the push to on the one hand privatise higher education, make it more commercial and on the other introduce a narrow, bigoted and majoritarian framework. These moves have been resisted and protested by teachers’ associations, students’ organisations and activists.  They have also been protesting against the ruling dispensation’s policies regarding graded autonomy, autonomous colleges, 70:30 formula and HEFA (Higher Education Funding Agency). The dire situation of higher education has been made worse by the changes in the 200-point roster, rampant ad-hocism, delay in pensions and promotions, lack of representation from SC/ST/OBC communities and other marginalised sections of society.



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